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2016考研英语阅读理解之词义题解题秘籍

发布时间:2019-07-09 11:54编辑:澳门威斯尼斯人娱乐网浏览(105)

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      在法语学习中,我们自然会遇上十分多生词。那时,许多少人立即翻阅字典,查找词义。其实,这种做法是不科学的。它不止费时费劲,何况影响阅读速度。事实上,阅读 质地中的每一种词与它左右的用语或句子以至段落有着相互制约的涉及。大家得以应用语境(各个已知新闻)测度、判定有些生词的词义,因为考研[微博]开卷部分的词汇题

      要考的而不是考生认不认知题中所考的单词,真正要考的是考生阅读中的推测才具,约等于说题中所考单词的词义必定能依照上下文测度出来。预计出词义后,可将 词义代入原来的小说看是还是不是通畅来剖断本人的估摸是不是标准。

      例如2003年第54题:

      Railroads justify rate discrimination against captive shippers on the grounds that in the long run it reduces everyone’s cost. If railroads charged all customers the same average rate, they argue, shippers who have the option of switching to trucks or other forms of transportation would do so, leaving remaining customers to shoulder the cost of keeping up the line. It’s a theory to which many economists subscribe, but in practice it often leaves railroads in the position of determining which companies will flourish and which will fail. “Do we really want railroads to be the arbiters of who wins and who loses in the marketplace?” asks Martin Bercovici, a Washington lawyer who frequently represents shippers。

      The word “arbiters” most probably refers to those_________。

      [A] who work as coordinators

      [B] who function as judges

      [澳门威斯尼斯人娱乐网,C] who supervise transactions

      [D] who determine the price

      该题的解题关键在于是不是知道arbiters后的介宾短语of who wins and who loses in the marketplace便是对该词的最可信定义,依靠该介宾短语,简单得出arbiters是决定哪个人输哪个人赢的人,多少个选取中独有B选项和那一个意思最为附近。

      再例2004年第43题:

      For any job search, you should start with a narrow concept—what you think you want to do—then broaden it. “None of these programs do that,” says another expert。

      “There's no career counseling implicit in all of this。” Instead, the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a particular database; when you get E-mail, consider it a reminder to check the database again. “I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that might interest me,” says the author of a job-searching guide。

      The expression “tip service” most probably means 。

      [A] advisory

      [B] compensation

      [C] interaction

      [D] reminder

      该题的解题关键在于足够利用分号,分号后边的短语use the agent as a kind of tip service和分集团后的consider it a reminder属于并列关系,it和the agent都以指的篇章中所说的追寻代理,自然大家就找到了tip service的等同词reminder。所以该题答案D。

      依根据考证研波兰语阅读明白词义题破解的完整规格,能够总计出二种具体的词义题解题方法:

      1. 内在逻辑关系法。即基于内在逻辑关系猜测词义是指使用语言知识深入分析和决断相关音讯之间存在的逻辑关系,然后依据逻辑关系测度生词词义或大约义域。

      a。依照相比较关系揣摸词义

      在贰个句子或段落中,有对三个东西或气象开始展览比较性的呈报,大家可以依靠生词或难词的反义词估算其词义。比如:

      Andrew is one of the most supercilious men I know. His brother, in contrast, is quite humble and modest. 该例中supercilious对很几人来说或者是个生词,不过句中短语in contrast,(绝相比较的,绝比较的)能够提示大家supercilious和前面词组humble and modest(谦卑又谦虚)是比较关系。解析出这种关联后,大家便能猜出supercilious意为“作威作福的,傲慢的”。

      代表相比关系的词汇和短语主倘若unlike,not,but,however,despite,in spite of,in contrast 和while 指导的并列句等。比方,A good supervisor can recognize instantly the adept workers from the unskilled ones. 该句中一直不出现上面提到的象征相比关系的词或短语,可是通过上下文能够看清出句子前后是比较关系,即把熟识工人与非熟悉工人区分开。那时大家也能够揣测出生词 adept的词义为“熟谙的”。

      b。遵照相比关系估摸词义

      同看待关系相反,相比关系表暗示义上的一般关系。

      例如:Green loves to talk,and his brothers are similarly loquacious。

      该句中副词similarly注解短语loves to talk与生词loquacious之间的可比关系。以此能够推论出loquacious词义为“健谈的”。表示相比关系的词和短语首纵然similarly,like,just as,also等。

      c。依照因果关系估摸词义

      在句子或段落种,若七个东西、现象之间结成因果关系,大家得以依赖这种逻辑关系推知生词词义。

      举例:汤姆 is considered an autocratic administrator because he makes decisions without seeking the opinions of others. 依据原因状语从句的剧情,我们得以推论出生词autocratic指“自以为是的”。There were so many demonstrators in the Red Square that he had to elbow his way through the crowd. 此句为结果状语从句,依据从句的叙说“大多抗议者”,大家便可推知elbow的词意“挤,挤过”。

      d。依据同义词的代替关系测度词义

      在句子或段落种,大家能够利用熟识的词语,根据语言情形猜测生词词义。

      举个例子: Although he often had the opportunity, Mr. Tritt was never able to steal money from a customer. This would have endangered his position at the bank, and he did not want to jeopardize his future. 作者为防止重复使用endanger一词,用其同样词jeopardize来代替它,因而推知其词义为“使……陷入危急,危及、风险”。

      Doctors believe that smoking cigarettes is detrimental to your health. They also regard drinking as harmful. 句中detrimental是个生词,但推断出harmful代替detrimental后,轻便估摸出其词义为“不利的,有剧毒的”。

      2. 外部有关因素法。外界有关要素是指篇章(句子或段落)以外的其他文化。不时仅靠剖判小说内在逻辑关系不能猜出词义。这时就供给利用生活经验和普常常识明确词义。

      比方: Husband:It’s really cold out tonight. Wife: Sure it is. My hands are practically numb. How about lighting the furnace? 依据生活经历,天气阴冷时,手动和自动然是“热烧伤的,冻得麻木的”。

      The snake slithered through the grass. 依照有关蛇的活着习性的文化,我们得以推论出slither词义为“爬行”。

      在猜测词义进度中,除了利用方面提到的有的本领,我们还足以依靠构词方面包车型地铁知识,从生词本人推断词义。

      另外利用词缀亦不失为一种有效的花招。

      a。依照前缀估计词义

      比如:He fell into a ditch and lay there, semiconscious, for a few minutes. 依照词根conscious(清醒的,有意识的),结合前缀semi(半,部分的,不完全的), 大家便可猜出semiconscious词义“半醒来的,半昏迷的”。I’m illiterate about such things. 词根literate意为“有学问修养的,领悟的”,前缀il表示否定,由此illiterate指“一无所知,不精通的”。

      b。依据后缀推测词义

      举个例子:Insecticide is applied where it is needed. 后缀cide表示“杀者,杀灭剂”,结合我们耳濡目染的词根insect(昆虫),简单猜出 insecticide意为“杀虫剂”。 Then the vapor may change into droplets. 后缀let表示“小的”,词根drop指“滴,滴状物”。将多少个野趣结合起来,便可揣摸出droplet词义“小滴,微滴”。

      c。依照复合词的各部分测度词义

      举例:Growing economic problems were highlighted by a slowdown in oil output. highlight或者是贰个生词,不过深入分析该词结构后,就能够估计出其意义。它是由high(高的,强的)和light(光线)两部分组成,合在一同正是“以焦点光照射,使特出”的意思。 Bullfight is very popular inSpain. Bull(公牛)和fight(打,搏斗)结合在一同,指一种在西班牙王国(The Kingdom of Spain)极为盛行的体育运动——斗牛。

      在 熟习精晓依照上下文猜想生词含义的还要,考生也应重视制止以下三种情状:第一,随便猜壹个精选,那样错误率极高。第二,未有精晓阅读词汇题的基本命题原 则,落入命题专家的牢笼,不识不知地失了分。所以考生在遇到阅读中的词汇题时,供给求门可罗雀,认真在上下文中寻找相关音信。那是一项相当的重大的开卷技艺。可以让我们清除生词的拦Land Rover,足够知情作品的沉思内容,升高阅读速度。 

     

      本文由万学海文供稿。

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