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通过阅读学词汇,懂你英语Level4

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      考研英语名师指导-阅读学词汇(三)

    L4 Unit 1-1Listening 旅游

      Unit Seven

    Christina is on the 2 weeks’ vacation. This is the firstvacation she’s had for a long time. The last vacation she took was more than 2years ago. Now she is visiting a friend in San Francisco. Her friend and herhusband are living near the center of the city. He works for a start-up companyat Silicon Valley. While he was working, she works part time at the departmentstore.

      On Ambition

    Christiana hasn’t seen her friend for long time. The lasttime they saw each other was 3 years ago. At that time, they were both workingat a department store

      If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition--wealth, distinction, control over one's destiny--must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition's behalf. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared: and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least among them. In an odd way, however, it is the educated who have claimed to have given up on ambition as an ideal. What is odd is that they have perhaps most benefited from ambition--if not always their own than that of their parents and grandparents. There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this , a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped--with the educated themselves riding on them. Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs not than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs-- the locations, place manes and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily nad openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools. For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional, the proper formulation is, "Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious."

    Then Christina quit her job and started her own business. Shedesigns women’s clothing. She has 2 employers now and her company is slowlygrowing.

      The attasks in ambition are many and come from varions angles; its public defenders are few and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive. As a result, the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States. This does not mean that ambition is at an end, that people no longer feel its stirrings and promptings, but only that, no longer openly honored, it is less openly professed. Consequences follow from this, of course, some of which are that ambition is driven underground, or made sly. Such, then, is the way things stand: on the left angry critics, on the right stupid supporters, and in the middle, as usual, the majority of earnest people trying to get on in life.

    Christina has come to San Francisco by herself. Her husbanddidn’t come because he has to work. He tried to start a the company 2 years ago,but it didn’t work out. His companyfailed after only a few months. So now he’s working at another company and savingmoney. Once he saves enough money, he plans to start another company. Hedoesn’t want to give up.

      destiny n. 1.命运 2.定数,天命

    This is the second time Christina has been to San Francisco.The first time was when she was a high school student. That was more than 10years ago. During that trip, she was only in San Francisco for a few days.After that, she went to Los Angles and New York. This time, she and her friendplan to relax and have fun.

      destined a. 1.命中注定,预定的 2.以...为目的地的

    Christina arrived two days ago, the day before yesterday. Herfriend met her at the airport and drove her to her apartment. Her apartment isjust north of the airport, about 20 minutes from San Francisco. It’s a smallapartment but it’s on a hill and it has a great view. Yesterday they wentdowntown and rode the cable cars. Christina was surprised by how steep thehills are. Then they walked along the ocean and ate lunch at the seafoodrestaurant. From the restaurant they could see the Golden Gate bridge.

      deem vt. 认为,视为

    Tomorrow they’re planning to drive to Yosemite National Park.By car it’s about 4 hours away. Christina has never been there before, so she isexcited. She has heard the park is very beautiful. Her friend has been toYosemite several times. She says it’s one of the most beautiful places in theworld. Christina just hopes that her friend is a good driver.

      hypocrisy n. 伪善,虚伪

    L4 Unit 1-1 vocabulary 伤病和地貌地形

      location n. 1.位置,场所 2.外景拍摄地

    Headache can be very painful and can last

      locality n. 地区,地点

    for a long time. If you have headache your head hurts.

      situated a. 位于...的,坐落在...的

    A sprained ankle can be so painful that you

      spectacle n. 1.演出,场面 2.景象,壮观 3.[-s]眼镜

    can’t walk. Someone with a sprained ankle may need to use to crutches to walk.

      ample a. 1.足够的 2.宽敞的,面积大的

    Crutches

      amplify vt. 1.放大,增强 2.扩大,详述

    n.拐杖;支持物;精神上的寄托;胯部

      exceptional a. 1.优越的,杰出的 2.例外的,独特的

    vt.支撑;支持

      [联想词]

    sprain

      abnormal a. 反常的,异常的

    vt.扭伤(关节)n.扭伤

      queer a. 1.奇怪的,异常的 2.不舒服的,眩晕的

    ankle n.踝,踝关节;脚脖子

      ambitious a. 1.有抱负的,雄心勃勃的 2.有野心的

    if you have a sore throat, it may bepainful toswallow. A sore throatcan be caused byviruses or bacteria.

      [联想词]

    A burn is an injury to the skin cause by

      aspiration n. 强烈的愿望,志向,抱负

    fire or heat. If you get too close to a fire, you will be burned.

      enroll vi.(in,on) 入学,加入 vt.招收,吸收

    An earache is a sharp,dullorburning paininthe ear. Common causes of an earache include an infection, a changing airpressure or water in the ear.

      [联想词]

    Mountains are landformshigher than2000 feet or about 600metersabove sea level. Hills arelike mountain, but not as tall. Mountains are formed by the forces deep withinthe earth and are made of many types of rocks

      expel (expelled;expelling) vt. 1.把..除名,把..开除 2.驱逐 3.排出

    Riversarestreamof waterthat usuallybegin atmountains andflow intothe sea. Many early citieswere built alongside rivers.

      formulate vt. 1.构想出,规划 2.系统地阐述

    Most of the world’s water is in the ocean,whichare the largebodies ofsalt water. The oceans arealso an important source of oxygen.

      formulation n. 1.公式化 2.系统的阐述 3.规划,构想

    Deserts areareas of landthat receive little or no rainfall. The amount ofrainfall in some deserts is so low thatonly

      impulse n. 1.冲动,一时的念头 2.驱动,驱使 3.脉冲

    a few plantscan survive.

      [联想词]

    A valley is low, relatively flat area between

      propel (propelled,propelling) vt. 1.推进,推动 2.激励,驱使

    hills and mountains, often with the river running through it. Some valleys are

      curb vt. 控制,约束 n. 控制,约束

    formed by flowing river and others are formed by glaciers.

      sly a. 1.狡猾的,狡诈的 2.会意的,会心的

    L4 Unit 1-1 dialogue 谈论吃饭和预约

      [联想词]

    M: Have you eaten yet.

      shrewd a. 机灵的,敏锐的,精明的

    F: Not I haven’t and I’m hungry.

      confidential a. 1.秘密的,机密的 2.表示信任的

    M: Me too. Let’s go out for dinner.

      Unit Eight

    F: Where to

      The Advantages and Disadvantages of Cars

    M: What about joe’s Italian.

      The use of the motor is becoming more and more widespread in the twentieth century; as an increasing number of countries develop both technically and economically, so a larger proportion of the world's population is able to buy and use a car. Possessing a car gives a much greater degree of mobility, enabling the driver to move around freely. The owner of a car is no longer forced to rely on public transport and is, therefore, not compelled to work locally. He can choose from different jobs and probably changes his work more frequently as he is not restricted to a choice within a small radius. Traveling to work by car is also more comfortable than having to use public transport; the driver can adjust the heating in winter and the air-conditioning in the summer to suit his own needs and preference. There is no irritation caused by waiting for trains, buses or underground trains, standing in long patient queues, or sitting on windy platforms, for as long as half an hour sometimes. With the building of good, fast motorways long distances can be covered rapidly and pleasantly. For the first time in this century also, many people are now able to enjoy their leisure time to the full by making trips to the country or seaside at the weekends, instead of being confined to their immediate neighborhood. This feeling of independence, and the freedom to go where you please, is perhaps the greatest advantage of the car.

    F: How many times have you eaten there.

      when considering the drawbacks, perhaps pollution is of prime importance. As more and more cars are produced and used, so the emission from their exhaust-pipes contains an ever larger volume of poisonous gas. Some of the contents of this gas, such as lead, not only pollute the atmosphere but cause actual harm to the health of people. Many of the minor illnesses of modern industrial society, headaches, tiredness, and stomach upsets are thought to arise from breathing polluted air; doctors' surgeries are full of people suffering from illnesses caused by pollution. It is also becoming increasingly difficult to deal with the problem of traffic in towns; most of the important cities of the world suffer form traffic jams. In fact, any advantage gained in comfort is often cancelled out in city driving by the frustration caused by traffic jams: endless queues of cars crawling one after another at the intersections. As an increasing number of traffic regulation schemes are devised, the poor bewildered driver finds himself diverted and forced into one-way systems which cause even greater delays than the traffic jams they are supposed to prevent. The mounting cost of petrol and the increased tolls and road tax all add to the driver's worries. In fact, he must sometimes wonder if the motor car is such a blessing and not just a menace.

    M: I eat there a lot. It’s one of my

      mobility n. 1.流动性,移动性 2.机动性

    favorite places.

      mobilize vt. 1.动员 2.调动 vi.动员起来

    F: I went there two weeks ago and the

      [联想词]

    service was terrible.

      summon vi. 1.召唤 2. (up)鼓起勇气 3.召开,召集

    M: Really, then let’s go some places

      irritate vt. 1.使恼怒,使烦躁 2.使(身体某部分)不适,使疼痛

    else.What do you suggest?

      radius n. 半径

    F: How about the royal Indian. It’s not far

      air-conditioning n. 空调设备,空调系统

    from here.

      drawback n. 缺点,欠缺,不利条件

    M: I’ve never heard of it. Is it good?

      [联想词]

    F: Yes, I have been there several times and

      setback n. 挫折,倒退,失败

    I’ve never been disappointed.

      handicap n. 1.缺陷 2.障碍 vt. (handicapped;handicapping) 妨碍,使不利

    M: Ok, let’s try it. I’ve never eaten

      productive a. 1.多产的,富饶的 2.富有成效的

    Indian food for a long time.

      productivity n. 生产力,生产率

    F: You won’t be disappointed and the prices

      surgery n. 1.外科,外科手术 2.手术室

    are reasonable.

      surgeon n. 外科医生

    M: Ah, so you mean I’m going to pay.

      [联想词]

    F: Well, that would certainly be nice.

      dentist n.牙科医生

    M: What about reservations.

      ward n.病房

    F: If you get there early enough, we won’t

      bandage n.绷带 vt.用绷带包扎

    need them.

      intersection n.道路交叉口,交点

    M: I hope you’re right.

      [联想词]

    F: Don’t worry, if we have to wait, I‘ll

      junction n.联结点,交叉口,枢纽

    pay the bill.

      overpass n.天桥,立交桥

    L4 Unit 1-2 Listening 旅游2

      barricade n. 路 vt.在...设路障

    Today, Christina and her friend are enjoying themselves. This

      bewilder vt. 使迷惑,难住

    morning they got up very early and drove out of San Francisco. They crossed the

      [联想词]

    Bay Bridge before the early morning commute and drove south. Because it was so

      perplex vt. 使困惑,使复杂化

    early, there were almost not cars.

      baffle vt. 使困惑,难住

    After driving an hour and a half, they stopped to had breakfast.

      toll n. 1.过路费 2.(事故等的)伤亡人数,损失 v.(缓慢而有规律的)敲(钟)

    They ordered pancakes and coffee. They also had some fresh fruits. When they

      divert vt. 1.使转向,使改道 2.转移,转移...的注意力 3.使娱乐

    finished eating, it was 7 o’clock. Then they got back into the car and drove

      diversion n. 1.转移,转向 2.消遣,娱乐 3.临时绕行路

    south. Christina wanted to listen to music, so they turned on the radio. An

      bless v. 1.使有幸得到,使具有 2.为...祈神赐福

    hour later they stopped for gas. They noticed that there was also a charging

      blessing n. 1.祈神赐福 2.幸事,恩惠

    station for electric cars.

      menace n. 1.具有危险的人 2.威胁,威吓 vt. 威胁,威吓

    It’s now 1:15 and they are in Yosemite Park. They have been there

      [联想词]

    for two hours, since 11:15. They are looking at the Yosemite falls, which is

      intimidate vt. 恐吓,威胁

    the highest waterfall in the park. The water drops a total of 740 meters from

      bully vt.欺负,威吓 n.恃强欺弱者

    the top of upper fall to the base of the lower fall.

      jeopardize vt. 危及,损害

    In another 15 minutes they plan to eat lunch at a magnificent old

      terrify vt. 使害怕,使惊吓

    hotel in the park. It was built in 1927 and has a great view. They wanted to

      terrific a. 1.可怕的,吓人的 2.极度的,极大的

    stay there, but they couldn’t get reservation. To get a room at that hotel you

      Unit Nine

    usually need to make reservations several months in advance.

      The Definition of a Gentleman

    They plan to stay in the park until around 4 o’clock. By then theywill have beenin the park for nearly 5hours. Then they’ll get back into the car and drive back to San Francisco. Theyplan to eat dinner somewhere along the way. If the traffic isn’t too bad, theyshould be back in San Franciscoby10 o’clock.

      It is almost a definition of a gentleman to say he is one who never inflicts pain. This description is both refined and, as far as it goes, accurate. He is mainly occupied in merely removing the obstacles which hinder the free and unembarrassed action of those about him. His benefits may be considered as parallel to what are called comforts or convenience in arrangements of a personal nature: like an easy chair or a good fire, which do their part in dispelling cold and fatigue, though nature provides both means of rest and animal heat without them. The true gentleman in like manner carefully avoids whatever may cause a jar or a jolt in the minds of those with whom he is cast; - all clashing of opinion, or collision of feeling, all restraint, or suspicion, or gloom, or resentment; his great concern being to made every one at their ease and at home. He has his eyes on all his company: he is tender towards the bashful, gentle towards the distant, and merciful towards the absurd; he can recollect to whom he is speaking; he guards against unseasonable allusions, or topics which may irritate; he is seldom prominent in conversation, and never wearisome.

    Early tomorrow morning they are going to cross the Golden Gate Bridgeand go northalongthe coast. Fromsome places, you canlook out on the

      He makes light of favors while he does them, and seems to be receiving when he is conferring. He never speaks of himself except when compelled, defends himself by a mere retort, he has no ears for slander or gossip, is scrupulous in imputing motives to those who interfere with him, and interprets every thing for the best. He is never mean or little in his disputes, never takes unfair advantage, never mistakes personalities or sharp sayings for arguments, or insulates evil which he dare not say out. From a long-sighted prudence, he observes the maxim of the ancient sage, that we should ever conduct ourselves towards our enemy as if he were one day to be our friend. He has too much good sense to be affronted at insults, he is too well employed to remember injuries, and too indolent to bear malice. He is patient, forbearing, and resigned, on philosophical principles; he submits to pain, because it is inevitable, to bereavement, because it is irreparable, and to death, because it is his destiny. If he engages in controversy of any kind, his disciplined intellect preserves him from the blunder.

    oceanand see whales and other sea life. Christina has never seen a whalebefore, so she’s looking forward to it. And tomorrow night they have somethingspecial planned. They are going to watch a baseball game. Christina has neverseen a baseball game, but she has heard that it is very popular in the US. Andthe San Francisco baseball team is one of the best.

      名人名言

    L4 Unit 1-2 vocabulary 力学、几何

      It is one of the beautiful compensations of this life that no one can sincerely try to help another without helping himself.

    A force is the push or a pull on the

      The great tragedy of life is not that men perish ,but that they cese to love.

    object. A force changes the motion of a moving object.

      inflict vt. (on,upon)把...强加给,使遭受,使承担

    A force can be strong or weak and it always

      [联想词]

    has a direction.

      afflict vt.使苦恼,折磨

    The earth is a planet that goes around thesunin the circular orbit. The speedof its motion doesn’t change and the direction of its motion does. The earthhas a layer of gas above its surface, which helps to support life.

      alleviate vt.减轻,缓解,缓和

    Atoms are the building blocks of matter. Atthe center of an atom is its nucleus, which has a positive electric charge.Outside thenucleusare electrons,which have a negative charge.

      hinder vt.阻碍,妨碍

    Asteroidsand comics are object thatorbitsour sun, but are smaller than planets. Asteroid that pass close to the earthare called the near-earth objects. The layer of gases, just above the earth surface,is our atmosphere. The atmosphere is made up of gases, such as oxygen andhydrogen. Without anatmosphere, there will be not life onthe earth.

      [联想词]

    Asteroid  n.[天]小行星;海盘车;海星   adj.星状的

      detain vt. 1.拘留,扣留 2.留住,耽搁

    orbit n.轨道;眼眶;势力范围;(人生的)旅程,生活过程

      jolt n. 1.震动,摇动,颠簸 2.震惊

    vt.& vi.在…轨道上运行,环绕轨道运行

      collision n. 1.碰撞 2.冲突,抵触

    vi.盘旋;绕轨道运行

      collide vi.1.碰撞 2.冲突

    vt.绕轨道而行;进入轨道

      [联想词]

    The two lines on the leftintersecteach other at aright anglewhich is 90 degrees. The 2lines on the right are parallel, which means they never cross.

      coincide vi. 1.同是雪生2.相等,相一致 3.位置重合,重叠

    Theadjacentsides of rectangle are perpendicular, which means they meet at a 90-degreeangle. Theopposite sides of therectangle are equal a parallel, which means they never cross. The area of arectangle is the length times the width.

      coincidence n. 1.巧合,巧事 2.一致,符合

    Intersect     vt.横断,横切,横穿     vt.& vi.(指线条、道路等)相交,交叉

      suspicious a. 1.猜疑的,疑心的 2.可疑的 3.表示怀疑的

    A circle is the 2dimensional figureswithradiusandcircumferencewhich is thedistance around the circle. The area of the circle is π R square, where r isthe radius and Pi is theratio of thecircle’s circumferencetoitsdiameter.

      gloom n. 1.昏暗,阴暗 2.忧郁,沮丧

    Radiusn.桡骨;半径范围;半径(距离);用半径度量的圆形面积

      gloomy a. 1.忧郁的,沮丧的 2.令人失望的 3.昏暗的

    Dimensional adj.维的;尺寸的;<物>量纲的;<数>因次的

      bashful a. 局促的不安的,羞怯的

    A sphere is a 3 dimensional figure with thea ratioandvolume,which is thethree-fourth πR cube. All points on thesurface

      absurd a. 荒谬的,荒唐的

    of the sphereareequidistant fromits center.

      [联想词]

    Cube    n.立方形,立方体;立方,三次幂;小房间

      insane a. 1.蠢极的,荒唐的 2.精神失常的,疯狂的

    vt.求…的立方;把(食物)切成小方块;测定…的体积

      hysterical a.情绪异常激动的

    equidistance 等距离的

      confer (conferred;conferring) vi.商谈,商议 vt.授予,赋予

    A rectriangle is a 2 dimensional figurewith 3 sides,2 of whichare perpendicular.To find its area, multiply the length of the 2 perpendicular sides, A and B anddivided by 2, A equates one half A B.

      retort v.反驳 n.反驳

    Perpendicular

      [联想词]

    adj.垂直的,成直角的;直立的,险陡的;[建]垂直式的;〈谑〉直站着的

      refute vt.反驳,驳斥

    n.垂直线,垂直面;直立,直立姿势,廉直;垂直测器,锤规;[建]垂直式建筑,绝壁

      slander n.诽谤,诋毁

    Equate  vt.等同;使相等;相当于

      gossip n. 1.流言蜚语 2.爱说长道短的人

    the electric force between the nucleus and

      scrupulous a. 1.有顾忌的 2.细致的

    the electrons holds the atom together.

      insulate vt. 隔离,使隔绝

    A force can increase or decrease the speed

      prudence n. 1.审慎,小心 2.精明,深谋远虑 3.节俭

    of an object, and it can change the direction of motion.

      indolent a. 1.懒惰的,怠惰的 2.令人困倦的

    L4 Unit 1-2 dialogue

      malice n.恶意,怨恨

    M:Have you finished

      bereavement n.丧亲,丧友

    eating yet.

      blunder n. (因无知粗心等造成的)错误 vi.1.跌跌撞撞地走 2.犯错误

    F:Not, I

      [联想词]

    haven’t.Why are you in such a hurry.

      stagger vi.摇晃,蹒跚 vt. 1.使吃惊 2.使错开

    M:I’m sorry, but

      stumble vi. 1.绊脚,绊倒 2.跌跌撞撞地走 3.结结巴巴

    you are such a slow eater.

      tumble vi. 1.跌倒,摔下 2.翻滚 3.不由自主的卷入 4.(价格等)暴跌

    F:A low eater? Well I try to

    [上一页] [1] [2] [3]

    enjoy my food. You just eat and swallow. I don’t see how you can even taste it.

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    M:Ok, I’m sorry. Doyou mind if I get another glass of vine. 

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    F:No, go ahead. I don’t want you

    to sit there putting pressure on me. I thought we were going to have a relaxing

    evening.

    M:Yes, you areright. I’d like to relax, but I had a lotonmy mind.

    F:Whatcreated?

    M:Yes. it is. I’ve been getting

    some strange emails from my boss. He wants me to cut down on my expenses. Maybe he wants to fire me.

    F:Is business bad?

    M:Yes, it is. But I

    don’t want to talk about it.

    F:Ok, but I’m a

    good listener. You can tell me if you’d like to.

    M:Thanks, maybe some other time.

    I’ll try to start thinking about it and deal with it tomorrow.

    F:Good idea. You

    need to take a break from work. Your health is important and so am I.

    M:Yes, you are. I

    don’t know what would I do without you.

    L4 Unit 1-3 listening 旅游3

    Harry is an American businessman. His job requires him to do a lot

    of travelling. He takes 9 or 10 trips a year. In the past six months he has

    made five trips. Three were to Asia and two were to Europe. The purpose of these

    trips is to attend meetings and make presentations.

    Harry loves to travel and he has traveled to many countries. Most of

    his trips are for one or two weeks. His first international trip was 15 years

    ago when he was 20 years old. He really wanted to see Asia, so he and a friend

    flew to Tokyo, Japan.

    From Tokyo, they traveled around Japan for 2 weeks. The people they

    met very nice, but most of them didn’t speak English. Harry tried to speak a

    little Japanese, but it was difficult. He didn’t do very well. When he spoke to

    people, most of them just looked at him. They didn’t understand what he was

    trying to say.

    From Japan they went to Korea for a week, and then they went to

    China. In China they visited the Great Wall in Beijing. He stayed in Beijing

    for a few days and then they boarded a train for shanghai. It was an overnight

    train with sleeping cars.

    During the journey, they enjoyed looking out of the window at the

    countryside. The view from the train was wonderful. Harry will never forget

    watching the sun go down in the evening. It was a beautiful sunset.

    The journey to shanghai took many hours, but it was an unforgettable

    experience. On the train, he met a Chinese Professor who spoke English. He was

    middle-aged man whose hair was turning grey. He told them about how things were

    changing in China. It was wonderful to watch him as he was speaking. His eyes

    were full of energy and excitement.

    They only stayed in shanghai for a couple of days. Then they

    returned to US and went back to school. They had one more years to finish their

    studies.

    Harry’s next new trips were to different parts of the world. He went

    to Europe twice, each time to different countries. On one trip he travel

    through the UK and France. On the next trip he went Italy and Greece.

    After the Europe he traveled to Mexico and South America. In southAmerica he went toArgentinaandBrazil. He enjoyed watching some greatsoccer matches.

    Then he decided to go back to Asia. But this time, he went to SoutheastAsia. He visitedVietnam,Thailandand Singapore. Each countryhad a charm of its own.

    After this travel, harry decided to make travel part of his career.

    He didn’t want to work only in the US. He didn’t work only with Americans. He

    wanted to experience other countries and other cultures. His dream was to work

    for an international company.

    Five years ago his dream came true. Now he’s working for a German

    hi-tech company. As part of his job, he has to travel a lot. As a result, he

    has been to many cities and counties. And he has met many interesting people.

    L4 Unit 1-3 vocabulary 牙齿、人体器官

        cavityn.腔,洞;蛀牙,龋洞

    A dental cavity is a hole in the tooth. A

    cavity is caused by bacteria in the mouth. Brushing your teeth frequently and

    regularly can help prevent cavities.

      cracked    adj.有裂缝的;声音沙哑的;精神失常的

    v.破裂;崩溃(crack的过去分词);发沙哑声

    A cracked tooth can be caused by bitingdown on some hard. Dentists the treat cracked tooth bycovering it withacrown(牙冠).

       crown   n.王冠;花冠(有时象征胜利);王权;(某物的)顶部   vi.露顶

    vt.(尤指通过增添成就、成功等)使圆满;为…加冕;使圆满完成;给…以荣誉

    A dental X-ray is a picture of your teeth

    and gums. An X-ray shows what can’t be seen on the surface of teeth and gums.

    Braces are used by dentists tostraightenteeth over a periods ofyears. Those braces are usually for children. they can also be used for adultswithcrookedteeth.

    Brace  vt.支撑;系紧;准备,预备;振作起来   vi.准备好;支持;打起精神

    n.支持物;铁钳,夹子;[语]大括号;绷紧(身体部位的)肌肉

    Straighten  vt.&

    vi.变直,把…弄直;整理,整顿;使…改正;使…好转

    vi.变好起来

    crook    n.骗子;弯曲;钩;诡计   vt.使成钩状;使弯曲

    vi.弯曲     adj.不正当的;骗人的

    crooked   adj.弯曲的;不正当的;歪扭的;用不正当手段得来的

    To extract a tooth means to remove it from

    the mouth. Dentists have to pull hard to extract a tooth.

    The heart pumps blood to all parts ofbodies through a system ofarteriesand vein.  It’s located in the chest,between the lungs and it beats about once per second.

    Artery   n.[解剖]动脉;干线,要道

    toxin   n.毒素;毒质

    The kidneys remove waste andtoxinsfrom the blood. They have beenshaped  and about 10 cm long, and 6 cmwide.

    The lungs exchange oxygen from the air withCO2 from the blood. Theyexpandwheninhalingair andcontractwhenexhalingair.

    Inhale    vt.& vi.吸气;吸入;〈非〉狼吞虎咽

    Exhale    vt.发散出;放出,放射;使蒸发;[医]渗出

    vi.呼气;发散;放出

    Thestomachis below the heart and it’s part of the digest system. It uses acids to digestfood beforepassingittothe smallintestine.

    Small intestine n.小肠

    The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that collects urine from the kidneys. In an

    audit, the bladder can hold about half a liter of urine.

    urine   n.尿;小便;下泉

    a liter

    of 公升

    L4 Unit 1-3 dialogue 谈论贿赂

    P: Good evening, sir. You were driving too

    fast.

    M: Really. Was i.

    P: Yes, you were going well above the speed

    limit.

    M: I’m sorry, officer.

    P: Ok, I need to see your driver’slicense.

    M: Here is my driver’s license.

    P: Your license is expired. Are you aware

    of that?

    M: No, sir. That’s a surprise. I didn’t

    know.

    P: It expired more than a year ago.

    P: Is this your car.

    M: No, sir, it’s a friend’s. I’m borrowing it forthe night.

    P: Get out of the car and put your hands

    behind your back.

    M: Why officer, what have I done.

    P: Just do as I say.

    M: Ok, officer, I’m cooperating. Please

    don’t push me.

    P: Get your hands behind your back.

    M: Ok! ok!

    P: I’m not asking you. I’m ordering you.

    M: Please officer, I haven’t done anything

    wrong.

    P: Stand still and don’t say anything. This

    is a stolen car, are you aware of that.

    M: Are you going to arrest me.

    P: What do you think. That’s what we do

    with car thieves.

    M: If you let me go, I will give you a

    couple of thousand dollars. I haven’t hurt anybody.

    P: So now you’re trying tobribeme. How stupid can you be.

    M: I just don’t want to go back tojail. Give me a break.

    P: Sure, you are a nice guy. I’d like to

    give you a break. But that’s nothing I can do.

    M: Please officer.

    P: Ok, where is the money. Let me see it

    and I will think about it.

    L4 Unit 1-4 listening 家政服务

    Quick service is a successful home repair company. It provides

    quick, reliable repair services to homes. It was established 5 years ago and

    has been expanding rapidly. In the last 2 years, it has opened offices in 3 new

    cities.

    Because of its rapid growth, it has to hire many new employees. In

    the last 6 months, it has hired 50 new employees. The total number of the

    employees in the company is now over 500. And the number of the customers has

    increased to more than 5000.

    The company has also improved its business model. Instead ofoffering only repair services, it can now help customers upgrade theirappliances. QuickService does this by giving a choice. Customers can chooserepair an appliance orupgrade it bybuying a new one. If they choose to buy a new one, they will get a discountedprice. So a customer can either repair a broken refrigerator for a small fee orbuy a new one.

    If they buy a new one, they will get a discounted price, along withfreeinstallation. This is possiblebecause several appliance manufactures have agreed to give QuickService bigdiscounts. QuickService then installs the new appliance and remove the old one.Feedback from customers has been positive.

    A high percentage of customershave

    taken advantages ofthis new service. As a result, QuickService has developeda great reputation.Its dedication tothe high quality service has proven to be successful. Its word-of-mouthapproach toadvertisinghas beencost effective. The appliance manufactures have also been happy with theresults. Their growing relationship with QuickService has helped increase theirsales.

    The world’s population is growing. There are over 7 billion peoplein the world. During the 20thcentury, the population grew from 1.65billion to 6 billion. It’s now going at a rate of around 1.1% per year. Thatmeans an increase is about 80 million per year. By 2024 the population isexpected to be around 8 billion people.

    The growth rate used to be higher. In the late 1960s, the rate of

    growth was about 2%. Since then the growth rate has declined. It is estimated

    that the growth rate will be even less than 1% by 2020. By the year 2050 the

    growth rate should be even less.

    Even with a declining growth rate, the population will continue to

    grow. But it will grow at a slower rate. In the pass 15 years, the world’s

    population has more than doubled. It has doubled from around 3 billion in 1960

    to more than 7 billion in 2011.

    The rate of growth varies by country. The growth rate in India ismore than twice than that of china. And the growth rate in Nigeria, which isAfrica, is more than twice than India’s growth rate. Russia, one the otherhand, has had a negative growth rate in some years. When the country has anegative growth rate, its population is decreasing.

    L4 Unit 1-4 vocabulary 名人和性格

    Co-funder of apple, this entrepreneur was a major figure in the

    computer industry. He was self-center and difficult to work for, but he led the

    development of many great products. He died of cancer when he was just 56 years

    old.

    Jack Ma is one of the richest and most famous men in china. He comesfrom a poor family and failed his college entrance exam twice.Despite ofmany failures, he has builtone of the world’s largest internet companies.

    David Beckham is one of world’s richest and famous athletes. He

    stared playing professional football when he was just 17. Much of his

    successful at an athlete, is because he practice hard than many other players.

    As a young girl inPakistan,Malala became famous for her writing some women education. In 2012, she wasshot in the head and nearly killed. She survived the injury and became theworld’s most famous teenager.

    Born in 1942, Stephen Hocking is one of the world’s most famousscientists. When he was 23, he was diagnosed with AIS, a rare disease of thenerves. Because of his disease, he isunable to walk and talk.

    Shy people are usually quiet and uncomfortable around other people.

    They generally dislike going to social events such as party. It’s often

    difficult to make friend with shy person because they won’t open up.

    Outgoing people are enjoying being with other people and are comfortable

    in social situations. They are friendly and pleasant to be with, though

    sometime they can be trusted.

    Self-centered people like to be the center of attention. They like

    people to look at them and pay attention to them. Self-centered people often

    talk too much and don’t listen enough.

    Selfish andgreedypeopledon’t share things with others. They keep things for themselves and always wantmore.

    People who are responsible and trust-worthy, are important in almost

    any situation. They can be depended on to get things done. These people can be

    trusted.

    Some people really dislike being around self-centered people.

    L4 Unit 1-4 dialogue 女朋友

    M1:Hey, steven, you

    know I’m your friend, right.

    M2:Sure, I know

    that. What are you trying to say.

    M1:I’m sorry to say

    this. But I think you’re making a fool of yourselves.

    M2:How am i make a

    fool of myself

    M1:You girlfriend

    are taking advantage of you.

    M2:Taking

    advantaging of me?

    M1:Yes, I think so.

    She just using you.

    M2:So, maybe she

    is. But I don’t mind. Even if she is using me, it’s ok. I’m using her too.

    M1:What do you

    mean. Aren’t you in love with her?

    M2:Yes, I’m in love

    with her. But that doesn’t mean that I’m not using her too.

    M1:I don’t

    understand. What do you mean.

    M2:Maybe I’m using her because Ienjoy being in love. I can’timaginelife without her. Even if she hurts me sometimes, I love her.

    M1:Do you trust

    her.

    M2:Yes, I trust. She tells mewhat’s important to her. She’s honest with me. She is neverlied to me about anything important.

    M1:Are you honest

    with her?

    M2:Yes, we are honest with each

    other, even when it hurts. And because we’re honest with each other, we trust

    each other.

    M1:Ok, so you don’t

    think you’re being taken advantage of.

    M2:No, I don’t, as long as sheis honest with me. The day she isn’t honest with me, will be the end of ourrelationship. And when that happens, my heart will break. Butuntil then, I’m her man.

    M1:Ok, I think I

    understand. I didn’t think you knew what was going on.

    M2:I’m as stupid as

    my look, my friend. Being in love with her, makes my life exiting.

    M1:Well, I hope

    you’re right.

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