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中国日报,化学与分子科学学院

发布时间:2019-07-10 07:49编辑:化学科学浏览(183)

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    澳门微尼斯人娱乐 2

    张俐娜院士

    (By Yang Cheng in Tianjin| China DailyUpdated:Aug 29, 2018)

    高分子化学家,武汉大学化学与分子科学学院教授。

    Renowned scholar Jay Siegel said he expects China's efforts to encourage innovation and creativity among students will propel the country's science education to new heights.

    46岁作为讲师才开始真正的科学研究;60岁获得国家自然科学基金重点项目资助,开始纤维素新溶剂及材料的研究;2011年荣获安塞姆·佩恩奖,这是国际纤维素与可再生资源材料领域的最高奖。虽现已年逾古稀,她依然坚守在科研第一线。近期,英国皇家化学会会刊 Chemistry World 对这位绿色化学的坚守者进行了专访。

    Siegel, 59, has been at the forefront of extensive reforms at Tianjin University since joining its School of Pharmaceutical Science in 2011. He was the college's first foreign dean since the founding of the People's Republic of China.

    该篇专访发表在2016年Chemistry World13卷第十期,文后附英文原文。

    He now heads its Health Science Platform, which was formed two years ago by merging the schools of pharmaceutical sciences and life sciences.

    “真正的化学家应该致力于探索新的科学规律和创造新的化合物。”张俐娜说,“科研挑战带给我前所未有的激情和成就感,这激励着我几十年如一日地耕耘在科研这块沃土上。”正是这种孜孜不倦的科研精神带领着张俐娜攀上了学术巅峰。至今,她发表了530余篇学术论文,主编了16本学术专着,并获国内外专利100余项。如今,张俐娜已年逾古稀,但她并不满足于功成身退,这位锲而不舍的老科学家对推进绿色化学全球化依然充满激情。

    "The most rewarding reforms have included combining faculties from all over the world and starting dual language teaching," said Siegel, who in 2015 received the Friendship Award, the country's highest honor for foreign experts.

    “我深刻地意识到,人类迟早将耗尽地球上的石油和煤炭资源,我们必须着手开发可以取而代之的新能源。”从武汉大学毕业后,张俐娜被分配到北京铁道科学研究院,从事于合成塑料和天然橡胶相关的研究工作。1973年,张俐娜调回武汉大学,她把目光瞄准在天然高分子材料科学的基础和应用研究上。1984年,张俐娜获日本学术振兴会资助,以访问学者的身份前往大阪大学进行了将近两年的学术交流。访日期间,她的研究重心主要为多糖溶液。“在日本的学习生活,让我学会了如何系统地从事高分子研究,也让我意识到发达国家对研究和发展新能源的重视程度是如此之高。”张俐娜如是说。

    "Looking forward, I expect China could make headway in supporting students' creativity, freedom and innovation," he added.

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    Siegel, who hails from the United States, is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Before arriving in China, he had worked in science education for 30 years in the US, Europe, Japan and Southeast Asia.

    张俐娜正在指导学生

    Since joining Tianjin University, which was founded in 1895, he said he has been committed to fostering an exemplary academic research climate and setting competitive academic standards through the curriculum, research evaluation projects, and the high engagement of students under the leadership of a strong international team.

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    The school has nearly 40 foreign professors from 17 countries, accounting for half the faculty.

    揭秘纤维素

    Siegel was able to attract 23 leading experts, including from Cambridge and Yale universities, to the pharmaceutical sciences school, while the university now has five Nobel laureates on its faculty.

    自1973年回到母校后,张俐娜和丈夫杜予民共同研究开发甲壳素、纤维素在功能材料上的应用。张俐娜注意到,用 CS 2 /NaOH溶液溶解纤维素的传统方法对环境已造成严重污染。“在生产人造丝和玻璃纸的过程中,国内仍大量使用CS 2/NaOH溶液。因此我下定决心,一定要找到一种环保的新型溶剂来代替有毒的CS 2成分。”

    He also invites 60 to 70 foreign experts each year to give lectures and share their insights with students.

    2000年,张俐娜获得了国家自然科学基金重点项目资助,开始了纤维素新溶剂及材料的研究。功夫不负有心人,经过长达12年的探索,张俐娜所带领的研究团队终于找到了水体系中低温快速溶解纤维素的新方法。张俐娜回忆道:“我们的团队付出了数千个日日夜夜,终于取得了突破性的进展。我们研发了一种低成本、低毒性的NaOH/尿素水溶液体系,在-12°C下这种体系可以快速溶解纤维素,仅需2分钟即可。用这种方法溶解所得的纤维素溶液进行纺丝已进入工业化初步试验。同时,利用这种水体系溶剂低温下(-30°C)还成功溶解了比纤维素更顽固的生物质大分子--甲壳素。而且,采用水体系低温溶解的纤维素、甲壳素、壳聚糖溶液已成功制备出一系列新型薄膜、凝胶、微球、气凝胶和塑料类材料。这些制品兼具安全性、生物相容性和生物可降解性等优点,可谓真正的环境友好型材料。”最近,张俐娜的研究工作进一步揭示了低温溶解甲壳素、纤维素的新机理,这些成果对生物医药、能源储存以及废水净化都有着重大意义和应用前景。

    According to Siegel, his reforms have helped address the long-standing problem in science education in China that "students serve the teachers; while in the West, teachers serve the students".

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    Over the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, China has transitioned from a "science resource producer" to a "global research leader", he said.

    可再生纤维素制成的各种材料

    However, he added, "Young people are the driving force of scientific research, and we can't predict the future of science. Supporting freedom and creativity to allow students to develop their ideas is the way forward for China."

    澳门微尼斯人娱乐,Lina Zhang et al, Progress in Polymer Science, 2016, 53, 169-206

    Siegel said he expects emerging artificial intelligence technologies will improve medical diagnosis in the country, which in turn will improve the quality of life for many people.(编辑 焦德芳)

    凭借着在国际纤维素与可再生资源材料领域出色的科研工作,张俐娜于2011年荣膺美国化学会安塞姆•佩恩奖,是国内唯一获此殊荣的科学家。她的科研成果不仅在国际上取得了广泛认可,更是吸引了一批优秀的科研人员加入她的团队——目前拥有来自中法两国的50位博士研究生和3位博士后。

    在科研上取得了丰硕成果的张俐娜并没有停止前进的脚步,她把目光转移到了海洋。张俐娜说:“海洋生物占据了地球上生物总量的80%,相比于陆地上的生物,它们的生命力和生物功能都明显更胜一筹。目前为止,人类对海洋生物的关注度和研究还远远不够。”张俐娜的目标是开发出一种永不枯竭的新型环保材料。而当它们废弃后,这种材料可以在土壤中温度达到 25°C以上时降解,从而减少由塑料造成的“白色污染”。

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    展望未来

    在展望未来时,张俐娜很高兴看到近年国内外的科学研究都取得了巨大进步。“与我求学时相比,如今的科学教育越来越重视培养学生的创新意识和动手能力。”张俐娜说,“我们当时仅仅学习一些基础知识,重复以往的科学研究。如今,中国的科学教育和科学研究都已经取得了惊人的进步。”

    张俐娜坚信,科学和科技的发展一定能帮助人类实现资源的可持续性。“青年科学家们掌握了最前沿的科学技术,拥有着丰富的专业知识,他们充满活力。”张俐娜说,“作为新的主力军,他们的未来充满无限希望和可能。但有一点,科研是没有捷径可循的,只有那些勇于面对挑战,并且一路披荆斩棘的人,才能收获非凡的学术成就。对于青年科研人员,我希望鼓励他们抱着好奇心去热爱科学,并且乐于奉献,这样才能实现重大的创新突破。”

    Renewable enthusiasm

    Lina Zhang reflects on five decades as part of China’s green chemistry vanguard

    ‘I believe a chemist should be one who discovers new patterns and creates new compounds,’ Lina Zhang states, setting out her viewpoint on science. ‘The thrill of the challenge and its fulfilment drives me to work night and day on my projects.’

    It’s this work ethic that has taken Zhang to the pinnacle of China’s scientific community. Since graduating from Wuhan University in 1963, she has published 530 papers, authored 16 books, and been granted nearly 100 domestic and international patents. But Zhang has no intention of resting on her laurels – her energies are still fully directed at making a global impact in green chemistry.

    ‘I came to the deep realisation that our oil and coal resources will someday be depleted and that we must start to utilise renewable resources to replace them,’ Zhang explains. Initially working at the Railroad Academy of Science in Beijing focused on synthetic plastics and natural rubber, she returned to Wuhan to study natural polymers. This led her to take a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science scholarship at Osaka University for two years in 1984, where she studied polysaccharide solutions. ‘That taught me how to systematically perform research on macromolecular fundamentals, as well as realise just how much developed countries valued the research and development of renewable resources.’

    Cellulose secrets

    Returning to Wuhan University, Zhang – along with husband Yumin Du – focused on expanding the use of chitin and cellulose as functional materials. Noting the environmental impact of treating cellulose with carbon disulfide and sodium hydroxide, Zhang set to work. ’The use of cellulose-CS 2/NaOH solution in the manufacturing of rayon fibres and transparent cellophanes in China is still widespread and increasing … I made up my mind to search for a new, environmentally friendly solvent to replace the toxic CS 2component.’

    In 2000, sponsored by the Natural Science Foundation of China, Zhang’s team found an alternative. ‘Our team worked night and day,’ Zhang recalls. ‘Eventually we had a breakthrough and found a low-cost, less toxic NaOH/urea aqueous solution that could quickly dissolve cellulose at -12°C within two minutes. Out of that solution regenerated cellulose fibres are spun in pilot production and a series of new films, gels, microspheres, aerogels and plastic-like materials have been formed. These new products are safe, biocompatible, biodegradable and can truly be classified as eco-friendly.’ Recently, her has discovered cellulose and chitin materials that can dissolve at low temperatures, which could prove useful for biomedical science, energy storage and wastewater purification.

    Zhang’s work saw her become the first Chinese scientist to win the American Chemical Society’s Anselme Payen award in 2011, leading to international recognition and expansion of her team, which now includes 50 doctoral graduate students and three postdoctoral fellows from China and France.

    Still, Zhang is not finished, and has turned her attention to the ocean. ‘The oceans’ inhabitants comprise 80% of living species on Earth,’ she explains. ‘Marine life has higher bioactivity and more functions compared with organisms on land, but are less explored and investigated.’ Zhang’s aim is to create renewable resources that will never be exhausted, are environmentally friendly and can biodegrade at above 25°C in soil – avoiding the ‘white pollution’ caused by plastics.

    Looking to the future

    Yet while Zhang’s work is focused on the future, she is also delighted by the progress the scientific community has made during her career, both in China and globally. ‘Science education has begun emphasising more on cultivating an innovative consciousness and the hands-on abilities of students compared with when I was in school,’ she says. ‘I was only learning the background knowledge and following the tracks of previous scientific research. Nowadays, China’s science education and science research have made big jumps in progress.’

    This next generation fills Zhang with hope that science can solve the problems of moving to renewable resources. ‘Young scientists have mastered the latest scientific techniques, have access to the best technical knowledge and are full of energy,’ she says. ‘They are a new force, with plenty of potential. But there are no shortcuts in scientific studies – only those who brave great ordeals and endure heavy toils can make major breakthroughs. My advice to young scientists is to love science and be prepared to sacrifice in order to make the next big innovative contribution.’

    本文由澳门威斯尼斯人娱乐网发布于化学科学,转载请注明出处:中国日报,化学与分子科学学院

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